OS Linux – Linux By Example http://linuxbyexample.org/ Sat, 09 Oct 2021 09:53:43 +0000 en-US hourly 1 https://wordpress.org/?v=5.8 http://linuxbyexample.org/wp-content/uploads/2021/06/icon.png OS Linux – Linux By Example http://linuxbyexample.org/ 32 32 5 reasons to buy a Chromebook (and 3 reasons you shouldn’t) http://linuxbyexample.org/5-reasons-to-buy-a-chromebook-and-3-reasons-you-shouldnt/ http://linuxbyexample.org/5-reasons-to-buy-a-chromebook-and-3-reasons-you-shouldnt/#respond Sat, 09 Oct 2021 09:43:20 +0000 http://linuxbyexample.org/5-reasons-to-buy-a-chromebook-and-3-reasons-you-shouldnt/

Windows laptops and Macbooks in offices are pretty standard these days, but when it comes to education and even some workplaces, Chromebooks are pretty common too. Some of the main factors that contribute to their popularity are: They are cheap, they can cut costs for businesses, and they are royalty-free and easy to use.

The Chrome OS came out in 2012 and Google called it “a breath of fresh air” as most laptops of the time were clunky and Chrome OS was a cloud-based operating system that only ran the Chrome browser and only a lot few resources were needed to run. Total Chromebook sales were not convincing until the pandemic hit the world, and sales soared and doubled in 2020.

In this article, let’s take a look at what makes Chromebooks better and if you should consider buying one for yourself.

Why you should buy a Chromebook

1. For browsing, entertainment and editing of documents

Thanks to the pandemic, the social media and entertainment industries are booming with content and consumers. Social media can be useful for learning a new skill or for showcasing yours and getting noticed.

If you are a college student or a professional who only uses social media, surfs the web, and consumes a lot of video content, a Chromebook might be an ideal choice. If your day is juggling between Excel spreadsheets or other documents, a Chromebook is again a great choice. Note, however, that there is no Microsoft Office suite on Chromebooks. Hence, you need to use Google’s cloud-based office suite, which is a great alternative to Microsoft Office.

One of the other great aspects of Chromebooks is their battery life. You can expect an intermediate level to take at least 8-10 hours. Part of this is because Chrome OS is a very light and energy efficient operating system.

2. Support for Android apps

Google added support for Android apps in Chrome OS in 2016. Chrome OS lets you install apps from both the Chrome Store and the Google Play Store, which is great. One of the downsides to Chrome OS is gaming, and the Google Play Store helps make that downside a little less punishing as Android games have gotten better over the past few years.

Chromebooks Android apps
Credits: The Edge

Not to mention, with a Chromebook, you also step into the Android ecosystem, just like you did with iOS. Well, it’s nowhere near the latter, but it does allow you to view and answer text messages and calls, and enable and disable phone features on the go.

3. Chrome OS is a feast for the eyes

In a world of Windows and macOS laptops and PCs, using the same operating system for extended periods of time could be incredibly boring. We then have tons of Linux distros, which again is not for everyone. In that case, the Chromebook is a viable option when you need a secondary device for casual use for a refreshing experience.

Chromebooks Chrome OS
Credits: Laptop-Mag

For the most part, if you are an Android user, the UI elements are very familiar. The experience will be very close to using Dex mode on Samsung devices (where you plug your phone into a monitor and rearrange the interface elements to give you a desktop-like feel.

4. Chromebooks are cheap

I’m pretty sure you will see this coming. Chromebooks are much cheaper than Windows laptops and MacBooks. For example, to buy a good and “usable” Windows machine, you need to spend at least $ 600, while Chromebooks with “low-end features” start at just $ 250. Premium and high-performance Chromebooks, on the other hand, cost no more than $ 700.

Chromebooks Premium Chromebooks

Not to mention, you can also opt for something in the middle, like the $ 400 Lenovo Chromebook Flex 5. That isn’t the end of the world, though. You can explore a wide variety of Chromebooks and choose the right one for your needs.

5. Chromebooks can run Windows (some type) and Linux

Yes indeed! You heard that right. You can run Windows on a Chromebook with a VM app called Parallels. We previously had Parallels in our ‘How to install Windows 11 on M1 MacBooks‘ Items. One of the unique features of Parallels is that you can drag and drop files directly from Chrome OS to the Windows VM and vice versa, which is pretty great.

Note, however, that if you want to run VMs on Chromebook, you need to buy one with good specs or the VM would run terribly slow.

Chromebook parallel app on Chrome OS

Since Chrome OS is based on the Linux kernel, Google added Linux support a few years ago. While it’s still in beta, Linux users and developers who compile their code on Linux have definitely appreciated its feature. We tried it out in our How to Install Linux on Chromebook, too, and were pretty impressed with how well it went.

All good things come at a price, however, and Parallels is no different. For more information on pricing, see the Parallels official website. If you already own a Chromebook and want to run Windows, Parallels also offers a free trial.

Why you shouldn’t buy a Chromebook


As mentioned earlier, you cannot run Windows games on Chrome OS. So, if you want a computer that can play games, we recommend sticking with Windows, at least for now.

Also, some of the Android games like Call of Duty and PUBG won’t work on Chrome OS. Hence, the best thing to do is to check what’s going on and then decide if you should buy a Chromebook.

General app support

While the presence of the Google Play Store for apps is very much appreciated, one of the main problems with Chrome OS is that you can’t run Windows apps and there aren’t many alternatives for that on the platform. I wouldn’t say there aren’t many apps out there, but app support is definitely lacking.

Chromebook Chrome web store

For example, if you make extensive use of the Adobe Suite, you are limited to its Android counterparts, which are different from their PC app counterparts. In fact, some of its counterparts like Microsoft 365 support have recently been retired on Chromebooks.

Chromebooks do not receive an extended update period

Windows PCs and laptops are all upgradeable to the latest Windows 11 using official or unofficial installation methods, but Chromebooks are not. You will receive major updates for about six and a half years.

Should You Buy a Chromebook? Here is our take

If all you want to do is browse the web, watch videos, and edit documents, buying a good Chromebook instead of a Windows laptop is a great way to save money. Most of them are very well built, have mediocre to good specs, and have excellent battery life that will last you all day.

If you’ve decided to buy one, we recommend buying one with an FHD display (1920 * 1080 pixels) and a 10th generation or higher i5 processor.

That said, last year in the US was the year of the Chromebooks. Thanks to the pandemic, Chromebook sales have reportedly skyrocketed, with over 30 million of them sold. Most of the buyers were students and educational institutions.

If Google manages to improve Chrome OS, students will grow up with Chromebooks, paving the way for much higher sales in the future as most students grow up with it and prefer it to any other operating system.

Of course, that prediction could fall far short of that, but we have to see what the future holds for Chromebooks. What do you think of Chromebooks? If you’ve ever used one, let us know your views and opinions on it in the comments section below.

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]]> http://linuxbyexample.org/5-reasons-to-buy-a-chromebook-and-3-reasons-you-shouldnt/feed/ 0 The best part of Windows 11 is a redesigned Windows subsystem for Linux http://linuxbyexample.org/the-best-part-of-windows-11-is-a-redesigned-windows-subsystem-for-linux/ http://linuxbyexample.org/the-best-part-of-windows-11-is-a-redesigned-windows-subsystem-for-linux/#respond Thu, 07 Oct 2021 10:45:49 +0000 http://linuxbyexample.org/the-best-part-of-windows-11-is-a-redesigned-windows-subsystem-for-linux/

Enlarge / Installing and using the Windows subsystem for Linux is easier and more productive on Windows 11 than it is on Windows 10.

Jim Salter

In our main Windows 11 review, published earlier this week, we covered most of the new features and design decisions in Microsoft’s newest consumer operating system – and it makes sense to characterize the overall impression there as “lukewarm”. The good news: We still hadn’t covered the best part of Windows 11: Linux.

For years, the Windows Subsystem for Linux has made life easier for Windows 10 developers, system administrators and hobbyists who have one foot in the Windows world and one foot in the Linux world. But the WSL, practical as it is, has been hampered by several things that it could not to do. Installing WSL has never been as easy as it should be – and getting graphical apps working has always been in the past possible but also a pain in the bum that required some pretty obscure third-party software.

Windows 11 finally fixes both problems. The Windows subsystem for Linux is not Perfect on Windows 11, but it’s a huge improvement over what came before.

Install WSL on Windows 11

Microsoft has traditionally made installing WSL more of a chore than it should be, but the company finally got the process right in Windows 10 Build 2004. Just open an elevated command prompt (Start -> Type cmd -> click Run as Administrator), Type wsl --install at the prompt and you’re good to go. Fortunately, Windows 11 continues this process unchanged.

A simple one wsl --install With no further argument, you get Hyper-V and the other basics of WSL, along with the latest version of Ubuntu. If you’re not a Ubuntu fan, the command can help you see what other easy-to-install distributions are available wsl --list --online. If you prefer another distribution, you can install it with for example insteadwsl --install -d openSUSE-42.

If you’re not sure which Ubuntu distro to prefer, don’t worry. You can install as many as you want just by repeating wsl --list --online to enumerate your options and wsl --install -d distroname install what you want.

Installing a second distribution does not uninstall the first one; it creates a separate environment, independent of others. You can run as many of these installed environments as you want at the same time without worrying about one messing up the other.

WSL now supports graphics and sound

In addition to the simple installation, WSL offers support for graphics and audio in WSL apps under Windows 11. This is not exactly a premiere – Microsoft introduced WSLg in April with Windows 10 Insider Build 21364. But Windows 11 is the first production Windows build with WSLg support.

If this is your first time hearing about WSLg, the short version is simple: you can install GUI apps – for example Firefox – from your Ubuntu (or other distribution) command line and they’ll work as expected, including sound. When I installed WSLg on Windows 11 on the Framework laptop, firefox the iconic browser opened automatically from the Ubuntu terminal. The YouTube headline also worked perfectly, neither with frame drops in the video nor with glitches in the audio.

If you are looking for how WSLg works, we can also help you get started here: Microsoft has decided to go into the future and use the Wayland protocol instead of the aging X11 / xorg. So that everything worked, the graphical interface had to be created on the Weston reference compositor for Wayland, which is connected to XWayland to support X clients, with FreeRDP providing the connectivity between the native Windows system and the X / Wayland apps, which run under WSLg.

If you want to dig deeper into the hairy details of WSLg’s architecture, we recommend Microsoft’s own April 19th devblog post on the very same topic.

What can I do with WSLg on Windows 11?

One of the most frequently asked questions about WSLg can be phrased as follows: “Why bother?” This is because most of the GUI killer apps in the Linux world aren’t actually Linux-specific – the vast majority have already been ported directly to the Windows platform. And for these apps, it makes more sense to run the Windows native ports frequently.

That being said, there is an obvious “killer app” for WSLg that we are excited about – and that is virt-manager, the virtualization management tool developed by RedHat. virt-manager is a simple tool that streamlines the creation, management, and operation of virtual machines using the Linux kernel virtual machine.

With virt-manager, you’ll see a simple list of your VMs along with their disk, network, and CPU activity. You can also manipulate your virtual “hardware” – eg by adding or removing RAM, “hard drives”, network interfaces and more – and start, pause or stop it. Creating and destroying VMs is as easy as managing – and eventually virt-manager allows you to drag a graphical console directly into any VM that behaves just like a physical display connected to a bare metal machine.

If all of this only worked on the local host, it would be pretty useless under WSLg. Nested virtualization is a thing, but it’s generally not something you want to do in production. However, virt-manager allows you to manage the VMs on any Machine that you can SSH to, not just the local host. In practice, I use this remote management function to manage many dozen hosts (and several thousand VMs) both locally and remotely every day.


Regrettably, virt-manager never got a windows port and it seems unlikely. But it runs like a champion under WSLg. In the screenshots above you can see my Framework laptop running virt-manager under WSLg, connected to my Ubuntu workstation via SSH. A multitude of VMs are installed and running on the Ubuntu workstation – and virt-manager on my framework laptop, it can manage all of them including the Hackintosh VM and the Windows Server 2012 R2 VM with console windows open.

The icing on this virtualization cake is how Good these console windows work – I had no problem getting a flawless YouTube playback on my Hackintosh VM console, complete with working, glitch-free audio. Ironically, this is a better remote control experience than I can manage with mine real Macbook Air – which is unbearable for spreadsheets as it’s limited to VNC over Wi-Fi.

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Hands on with StarWind NVMe-oF Initiator for Windows http://linuxbyexample.org/hands-on-with-starwind-nvme-of-initiator-for-windows/ http://linuxbyexample.org/hands-on-with-starwind-nvme-of-initiator-for-windows/#respond Wed, 06 Oct 2021 20:45:09 +0000 http://linuxbyexample.org/hands-on-with-starwind-nvme-of-initiator-for-windows/

Windows is great for a lot of things, there’s a reason it’s the number one operating system in the world. That said, it’s not perfect, especially when it comes to embracing new storage standards. Therefore, there is an enormous opportunity for enterprising companies to develop solutions for Windows shops. As NVMe SSDs continue to dominate the business and become the standard for SSD server storage, the demand for sharing this storage increases. Unfortunately, this was a problem under Windows until recently. Earlier this year, StarWind commercialized an NVMe-oF initiator for Windows.

Windows is great for a lot of things, there’s a reason it’s the number one operating system in the world. That said, it’s not perfect, especially when it comes to embracing new storage standards. Therefore, there is an enormous opportunity for enterprising companies to develop solutions for Windows shops. As NVMe SSDs continue to dominate the business and become the standard for SSD server storage, the demand for sharing this storage increases. Unfortunately, this was a problem under Windows until recently. Earlier this year, StarWind commercialized an NVMe-oF initiator for Windows.

Up until commercialization, StarWind had offered its NVMe-oF Initiator for Windows as a free tool for development and PoC use cases. They still offer the free version for those who want to play, but we’re looking at the GA shipping version today. If you’re looking at an NVMe-oF initiator for Windows, you’re probably using StarWind IP. They offer OEM solutions for a large number of partners who need to expand their offerings.

NVMe-oF initiator for the Windows configuration

The StarWind NVMe-oF Initiator for Windows can be easily installed on any Windows host. No special hardware or additional Windows components are required. The software is Windows-certified (Server 2019 and Windows 10) and tested for compatibility with the most important NVMe-oF storage providers. In our scenario, we have a very simple configuration of one storage host and four clients.

starwind NVMe-oF initiator for Windows in the device manager

Each of the four clients are Dell PowerEdge R740 servers. They each run with two Intel Xeon Gold 6130 CPUs with 2.1 GHz and 256 GB DRAM. We use NVIDIA ConnectX-5 EN 100GbE NICs (MCX516A-CCAT) for connectivity. The servers are installed with Windows Server 2019 Standard Edition, using the StarWind NVMe-oF initiator for Windows version For the Linux tests we used CentOS 8.4.2105 (Kernel – 4.18.0-305.10.2) with nvme-cli 1.12. The servers are directly connected to the storage host.

StarWind NVMe-oF initiator for the Windows architecture

The memory host is an Intel OEM server (M50CYP2SB2U), which is equipped with two Intel Xeon 8380 CPUs with 2.3 GHz with 512 GB DRAM. We used NVIDIA ConnectX-5 EN 100GbE NICs (MCX516A-CDAT) again, this time we had four in the host. In this case we are using CentOS 8.4.2105 (Kernel – 5.13.7-1.el8.elrepo) and SPDK v21.07.

NVMe-oF initiator for Windows P5510

We use eight Intel P5510 Gen4 NVMe SSDs inside the host. The SSDs are split into two batches of four for NUMA alignment with the CPUs. They are configured in RAID0 for maximum performance.

NVMe oF initiator for Windows performance

For these tests, we performed the following benchmarks via FIO, using both Linux and Windows initiators.

  • Random Read 4K – 16 threads, 32 queue depth
  • 4K Random Writing – 8 threads, 4 queue depth
  • Random Read 64K – 4 threads, 32 queue depth
  • 64K Random Write – 4 threads, 1 queue depth
  • Sequential Read 1M – 2 Threads, 8 Queue Depth
  • Sequential Write 1M – 1 thread, 8 queue depth

A single test duration is 3600 seconds (1 hour). Before benchmarking the writes, the memory was initially warmed up for 3600 seconds (1 hour). All tests were carried out three times and the average value was used as the final result.

In our first group, which examined the performance of the Linux NVMeoF initiator across 4 clients, we measured 5.54 million IOPS at a bandwidth of 21.6 GB / s with 0.369 ms latency with 4K random read. The 4K random write performance measures 1.58 million IOPS at a bandwidth of 6.2 GB / s with a latency of 0.08 ms.

Moving to large block transfers, we measured both a random 64K and a sequential 1M test that focused on bandwidth across the fabric. With 64K random read, we measured 46.6 GB / s with 0.69 ms latency and 7.2 GB / s with 0.14 ms latency when writing. 1M sequential came in at 42.9 GB / s reading with 1.48 ms latency and 25.4 GB / s with 1.26 ms latency writing.

Next we switched to Windows, where we used the StarWind NVMeoF initiator for the same four clients. Here we measured 4.17 million IOPS in 4K random read or 16.3 GB / s with 0.35 ms latency. 4K random write came with 1.54M IOPS or 6GB / s with 0.07ms latency.

We then moved on to a larger 64K transfer size with the same random access profile. Here we measured 46.6 GB / s reading at 0.68 ms latency and 7.2 GB / s writing at 0.13 ms latency. When switching to our last workload profile with a transfer size of 1 million with a sequential access pattern, we measured 42.9 GB / s read with 1.38 ms latency and 25.2 GB / s write with 1.14 ms latency.

In a direct comparison of the numbers, both Windows and Linux performance were very close to each other with the exception of 4K Random Read. In all other tests, the performance gap was less than 3%. The main difference is really in the CPU overhead that is added as it traverses the Windows memory stack. This gives a difference of 2.7-3.7, with increased I / O itself contributing the most to CPU usage.

Going from 16% CPU usage in Linux to 44% in Windows is a pretty big jump, but an increase from 3.5% to 9% wouldn’t be felt to the same extent. For applications that need to run on Windows or the IT shop in general is more Windows-focused, StarWind’s primary goal was to provide NVMeoF features and performance that could clearly be achieved.


The aim of this analysis is not to determine the best or fastest way to implement your own NVMe-oF solution. Most storage deployments follow the application as opposed to the application that follows the storage. However, there are a number of reasons a company might want to use Windows. It could be specific applications, existing infrastructures, cost reasons, or any other number of problems that make Windows the preferred platform. At least now, with StarWinds NVMe-oF Initiator for Windows, we have a way of sharing NVMe SSDs and bringing them as close as possible to application systems.

NVMe-oF initiator for Windows front enclosures

If we ignore the client operating system for a moment, the main limitation in our tests really lies in the network connections between the systems. In our case, we saturated the network with 100 Gb NICs and hit it at 46.6 GB / s in both Linux and Windows environments. Even the maximum 4K random read test in Windows got 16.3 GB / s, which would give more than six 25 GbE links for random I / O. The network plays a more important role for NVMe-oF as the NVMe performance can absorb a lot of traffic in any way.

But at the end of the day, our goal was to evaluate how well the StarWind initiator worked. It works really damn well. Given the alternative, “No NVMe-oF for you!” under Windows we like to have all options. Yes, there is a CPU hit for the privilege, but while the Linux to Windows percentage deltas are scary, the perceived impact outside of 4K random reads is minimal. If you’re not sure if this is the right solution, you can try StarWind for free. It’s so easy to install that there is every reason to try it and see how well NVMe-oF can work for your applications in Windows.

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The Debian-based MX Linux 21 RC is here to spoil Microsoft’s big Windows 11 launch party http://linuxbyexample.org/the-debian-based-mx-linux-21-rc-is-here-to-spoil-microsofts-big-windows-11-launch-party/ http://linuxbyexample.org/the-debian-based-mx-linux-21-rc-is-here-to-spoil-microsofts-big-windows-11-launch-party/#respond Wed, 06 Oct 2021 00:04:08 +0000 http://linuxbyexample.org/the-debian-based-mx-linux-21-rc-is-here-to-spoil-microsofts-big-windows-11-launch-party/

Today is October 5th, which is especially important as it is the official release date of Windows 11. This is even more special as Microsoft’s newest desktop operating system isn’t just good … it is great. Yes, this is probably the best version of Windows ever, and if you are a Windows user, make sure to upgrade if your computer is compatible.

Unfortunately this time it’s a pretty big “if”. You see, Microsoft is pretty strict on system requirements, which means that many computers are not compatible or officially supported. Although Windows 10 is still supported for a while, some users understandably want to get started right away, knowing that their PC has no future in the eyes of Microsoft. Fortunately, these users have a wonderful Windows 11 alternative – Linux!

The first MX Linux 21 release candidate is due out today, and Microsoft may not be very happy about it. After all, the Linux distribution essentially spoils the big Windows 11 launch party. Hell, Microsoft even serves ice cream!

The upcoming MX Linux 21 is based on Debian 11 “Bullseye”. The operating system is offered with the Fluxbox window manager or your choice of two popular desktop environments – KDE Plasma and Xfce. The Linux distribution includes Mesa Vulkan drivers and an updated installer by default. Improved Wi-Fi support is also integrated.

But what exactly is new in the first release candidate? The developers share this below.

  • New selection area for installer partitions, including some LVM support if LVM volume already exists
  • New UEFI Live startup menus. Now you can choose your live boot options (persistence etc) from the boot menu and submenus instead of using the previous console menus.
  • Xfce 4.16, Plasma 5.20, Fluxbox 1.3.7 with mx-fluxbox 3.0 configurations
  • User password (sudo) for admin tasks by default. You can change this in mx-tweak-> Other tab.
  • Many many bug fixes since Beta2.

When you’re ready to try out MX Linux 21 RC 1, you can download it here now. Should you replace Windows 10 with MX Linux today? No, not right away – you should try it out first and make sure it fully meets your needs. And don’t forget that this is only a release candidate, not the final version. With that, it should be pretty stable at this point. At the very least, you should wait for the final stable release before making any decisions.

Photo credit: ViDI Studio / Shutterstock

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Windows 11: The Ars Technica Test http://linuxbyexample.org/windows-11-the-ars-technica-test/ http://linuxbyexample.org/windows-11-the-ars-technica-test/#respond Mon, 04 Oct 2021 20:00:34 +0000 http://linuxbyexample.org/windows-11-the-ars-technica-test/


Microsoft wanted everyone to use Windows 10.

Given the slow adoption of Windows 8 and the stubborn popularity of Windows 7, Microsoft made Windows 10 a free upgrade for all users of both versions – the offer technically expired years ago, but to this day old Windows 7 and 8 product keys keep activating still Windows 10 without protest. The operating system was billed as a return to form that would appeal to people put off by Windows 8’s divisive touchscreen-centric user interface, while maintaining touch-friendly features for those using a PC tablet or laptop with a touchscreen bought.

Windows 10 would also be durable. Some at the company called it “the last version of Windows” – a large, stable platform that would appease change-shy users, huge IT stores that would have used Windows XP forever if they could, and software developers who wouldn’t have to worry more about supporting several completely different Windows generations at the same time. Windows could still change, but a new maintenance model happening twice a year would keep that change at a slow but constant pace that anyone could keep up with.

In fact, with Windows 10, Microsoft achieved its main goal: it’s the most widely used and most accepted version of Windows since XP in every way. Statcounter Says Nearly 80 Percent of All Windows Systems Worldwide Run Windows 10; The Steam Hardware Survey determines that Windows 10 usage is at or above 90 percent, suggesting even greater adoption among enthusiasts.

These numbers on the top line require some context. Microsoft has released a dozen different versions, all of which are referred to as Windows 10, and the latest version of Windows 10 is at least as different from the version that launched in 2015 as is (say) Windows 7 from Windows Vista. But in theory, almost every computer that has Windows 10 installed will be updated to the latest version at some point, and that gives Microsoft a bigger and more consistent platform than it has in a long time.

The problem for Microsoft is that achieving one goal – having the same version of Windows on almost all PCs – didn’t necessarily produce the results Microsoft was hoping for. Make Windows 10 big enough, it was thought, and developers would be more willing to migrate from their old Win32 apps to newer UWP (Universal Windows Platform) apps and simply distribute them through the Microsoft Store. And since UWP apps could run not only on PCs but also on Xbox and Windows Phone, a quick rollout of Windows 10 in the Windows-dominated PC industry would set in motion a positive cycle that would change Microsoft’s other hardware and software- Efforts would support.

That part never really happened. UWP apps never caught on, and Microsoft’s new game to make the Microsoft Store relevant is to allow developers to submit any type of apps they want. While the Xbox is successful, it continues to focus closely on gaming and media streaming. And Windows Phone is dead, slain by a combination of disinterest from users and developers, fueled by confusing news, and startling corporate neglect.

And that’s at least one of the reasons why Microsoft, after a release that considered widespread adoption its primary goal, is releasing a brand new version of Windows that isn’t even supported on computers that are 3 or 4 years old. Windows Everywhere was ambitious, but the dream is dead. Microsoft has shifted its focus to getting solid versions of its apps on iOS and Android, and even Microsoft’s modern phones run a Microsoft-based version of Android and not everything what has to do with windows. The new version of Windows is more concerned with the places Windows already is and likely will stay – risk-averse, money-rich, security-conscious companies. There are sure to be a lot of user-centric changes out there, but the PCs running Windows 11 (at least officially) to need to support a range of hardware and firmware level security mechanisms that are fully supported but optional in Windows 10.

(The more cynical view is that the new requirements are meant to drive new PC sales, an interpretation made all the more plausible by the ongoing pandemic-induced shortage of PC parts and price increases. Personally, I find Microsoft’s security rationale compelling, but it doesn’t exist no Evidence to support this more nefarious reading of the company’s intentions.)

We’ll be focusing on those security features and system requirements in this review, while also covering the new design and big moves of new and updated apps, as well as the other changes Microsoft has made to Windows under the hood. We also plan to have separate coverage of some specific areas of the operating system, including games, new Linux subsystem functionality, and how it runs on older “unsupported” hardware; we will link these pieces here when they go live.

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Linux 101: what is the mount command and how is it used? http://linuxbyexample.org/linux-101-what-is-the-mount-command-and-how-is-it-used/ http://linuxbyexample.org/linux-101-what-is-the-mount-command-and-how-is-it-used/#respond Mon, 04 Oct 2021 14:09:39 +0000 http://linuxbyexample.org/linux-101-what-is-the-mount-command-and-how-is-it-used/ Jack Wallen introduces the mount command to new Linux users and explains how to use it to mount an external drive in the internal file system.

Image: Jack Wallen

Linux is capable of doing all kinds of amazing things, some of which no other operating system on the planet can do.

It is also capable of doing some very basic tasks. One such task is to mount file systems (such as external drives) on the file system. This is a crucial function, otherwise you will not be able to expand your storage or connect external data drives.

SEE: 5 Linux Server Distributions You Should Use (TechRepublic Premium)

If you’re on a Linux distribution that includes a desktop GUI, adding external drives is pretty straightforward. But what if you are using a GUI-less server? To do this, you need to use the mount command. Mount does exactly what you think it does, it mounts an external drive into your internal file system.

But it’s not that simple. First of all, you need to have a directory in the internal file system that serves as a mount point. For example, you cannot simply mount / dev / sdb on the root filesystem.

However, you could create a new directory such as data with the command sudo mkdir / data. You then want to make sure that any user or group that needs to use the directory has access using the chown command (as in sudo chown -R: writers / data), then give the group write access using the chmod command (as in sudo chmod -R g + w / data).

SEE: Linux 101: How to Run Commands From Nano Text Editor (TechRepublic)

Once you do, you will have a mount point that can accommodate the external drive. You then need to find out where the drive is, what with the command lsblk. Find the drive name associated with the hard drive and mount it with the command sudo mount NAME / data (Where NAME is the name assigned to the drive, e.g. / dev / sdb).

At this point, everything that is on your external drive will show up in / data.

And that, my friends, are the basics of using the mount command. For more details on this helpful tool, be sure to read the man page with man mount.

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How to enable Windows 11 style menus in Google Chrome http://linuxbyexample.org/how-to-enable-windows-11-style-menus-in-google-chrome/ http://linuxbyexample.org/how-to-enable-windows-11-style-menus-in-google-chrome/#respond Sun, 03 Oct 2021 18:02:23 +0000 http://linuxbyexample.org/how-to-enable-windows-11-style-menus-in-google-chrome/

Google added a new Windows 11 style menu to the company’s Canary version of the company’s Chrome web browser this week. The new style corresponds to the style of the Windows 11 operating system menus, especially the rounded corners.

Chrome Canary users can now activate the new style on all versions of Windows. The feature is not available for other operating systems including Linux, Mac, or Chrome OS.

The screenshot below shows the new visual style of Chrome’s right-click menu in the latest version of Chrome Canary. The main difference from the previous menu is that the new menu has rounded corners.

Earlier versions of Chrome showed rectangular menus with no rounded corners. All of the browser’s menus, including the main menu, tab menu, or extension-specific menus, use rounded corners after the change.

Chrome menus in the style of Windows 11

The change is only available in Chrome Canary on Windows at the time of writing. It needs to be enabled as it is not enabled by default. This is how you do it:

  1. Load chrome: // flags / # win11-style-menus into the browser’s address bar.
  2. Use the menu next to the flag to set it to Enabled if you are running Windows 11. If you’re not running Windows 11, set it to Enabled – All Versions of Windows instead.
  3. Restart Google Chrome using the restart button that appears.

Menus have rounded corners after they start. You can undo the change by setting the flag mentioned above to Disabled or Default. Google may turn on the new style by default on Windows 11 in the future, but the company hasn’t confirmed that this will actually be the new default style in Chrome for Windows.

The new Windows 11 Style Menus feature is a cosmetic change in Google Chrome. The Canary version of Microsoft’s Edge web browser already uses rounded corners for its menus by default, even on non-Windows 11 versions of Windows (only tested on Windows 10).

Microsoft plans to release Windows 11 on October 5, 2021.

Now you: What do you think of the menu change? Which style do you prefer? (via Deskmodder / LEOPEVA)


How to enable Windows 11 style menus in Google Chrome

item name

How to enable Windows 11 style menus in Google Chrome


Learn how to enable Windows 11 style menus in Google Chrome, including on other Windows operating systems such as Windows 10.


Martin Brinkmann


Ghacks technology news


advertising ]]> http://linuxbyexample.org/how-to-enable-windows-11-style-menus-in-google-chrome/feed/ 0 Linus Torvalds, a Finnish Swede who changed computer technology forever http://linuxbyexample.org/linus-torvalds-a-finnish-swede-who-changed-computer-technology-forever/ http://linuxbyexample.org/linus-torvalds-a-finnish-swede-who-changed-computer-technology-forever/#respond Sat, 02 Oct 2021 06:42:03 +0000 http://linuxbyexample.org/linus-torvalds-a-finnish-swede-who-changed-computer-technology-forever/

EVERY LIST OF THE MOST FAMOUS FINNS in the world would be incomplete today without Linus Torvalds, the software developer who created Linux, the world’s largest open source operating system.

Linux is used in a wide variety of computing and mobile systems today. To name just a few things based on Torvald’s idea: NASA’s computers, Instagram, the Hadron Collider, the vast majority of supercomputers, and the US Department of Defense all run Linux. Even if you’ve never started the Linux kernel on your laptop, you have benefited from this open source software.

What few people know is that although Torvalds was born and raised in Helsinki, he actually belongs to Finland’s Swedish-speaking minority, the Finland-Swedes. When the 30thNS Nearly the anniversary of the Linux release, we thought we would continue our on-going Finnish-Swedish cultural series by looking at the life and accomplishments of one of the most famous members of this community.

Although Torvalds now resides in the heart of Silicon Valley and has a fortune of around $ 150 million, his origins are somewhat more humble, if by no means of working class. He was born on December 28, 1969 to Finnish Swedish parents, including journalist and MP Nils Torvalds. His grandfathers were Leo Törnqvist, another famous Finnish Swede who was Finland’s first statistician ever, and Ole Torvalds, the famous poet and journalist. It was Törnqvist, his maternal grandfather, who first piqued Torvald’s interest in computers after asking him in 1981 to help program his brand new Commodore VIC-20 computer.

Linux first came together during his undergraduate studies in computer science at Helsinki University. Torvalds has his own Microsoft personal computer that had an operating system that was incompatible with the UNIX system used by the university. To fix this, he began developing a UNIX-like system that was compatible with personal computers. He first published the open source code on a computer forum in 1991, and it proved such a hit with the programming community that Linux as we know it was born shortly afterwards.

The completely free and open source nature of Linux meant that it quickly spread around the world. One industry that was particularly interested in the software was the defense sector, as it was much more convenient for security agencies to use code that they could see in full (as opposed to hidden code used by paid providers like Apple). Linux is also very popular in non-western countries because, due to its open source nature, it can be easily modified and adapted to local language requirements.

In 1997 Torvalds left Helsinki and moved to California, where he continues to work with the Open Source Development Lab, a consortium of major tech players such as Intel, Siemens and IBM who are committed to Linux development. His wife, who is almost 30 years old, is the six-time Finnish national karate champion Tove Torvalds, and both have been US citizens since 2010. However, Torvalds still returns to his homeland to give lectures, especially at his old alma mater, the University of Helsinki.

In 2004, the national broadcaster Yle rated him at 16NS in their list of the “100 Greatest Finns”, while Time Magazine also included it on their 2004 Time 100 ranking. He is an honorary doctor of Stockholm University and has named an asteroid, the 9793 Torvalds, after him.

Image source: Lehtikuva

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Discover the three most important CentOS clones http://linuxbyexample.org/discover-the-three-most-important-centos-clones/ http://linuxbyexample.org/discover-the-three-most-important-centos-clones/#respond Fri, 01 Oct 2021 19:24:30 +0000 http://linuxbyexample.org/discover-the-three-most-important-centos-clones/

Many companies used CentOS as a reliable, free, and open source Linux distribution that could support many ecosystems – until IBM Red Hat decided to end CentOS in favor of the rolling release candidate CentOS Stream. Some administrators and companies had no choice but to ditch CentOS as popular software like cPanel web hosting software no longer worked with CentOS Stream.

Fortunately, several open source clones of CentOS have emerged, all of which are 1: 1 binary compatible with Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). This means that each of these clones will behave just like the original CentOS.

Several CentOS clone distributions have become popular with Linux administrators. While they all feel and act similarly to CentOS, subtle differences can lead to certain data centers taking over one over another. AlmaLinux, Rocky Linux and VzLinux represent the three most popular CentOS clones.


CloudLinux launched AlmaLinux as the first CentOS clone. CloudLinux first made a name for itself as a hosting provider and also created CloudLinux OS, a Linux distribution for shared hosting environments. CloudLinux has also developed TuxCare, an enterprise-class support system for AlmaLinux that keeps AlmaLinux systems up-to-date and secure for years to come.

Providers such as AWS, Arm, Open Source Lab, cPanel, Chef, Plesk and Mattermost support AlmaLinux. In particular, the support of CPanel means that administrators can install both cPanel and WHM on the system, which allows them to automate a variety of web hosting tasks like with CentOS.

CloudLinux offers AlmaLinux as an installable ISO image, but administrators can also convert their existing CentOS 8 distribution to AlmaLinux.

Rocky Linux

CentOS creator Gregory Kurtzer developed Rocky Linux as another 1: 1 binary compatible RHEL distribution after Red Hat and IBM announced that CentOS would be a rolling release.

Just like AlmaLinux, Rocky Linux behaves like CentOS 8 or RHEL 8 and remains free, open, collaborative and secure. Providers like 45Drives, OpenDrives, MontaVista, and AWS support Rocky Linux, which means administrators can deploy it on cloud-hosted services.

Rocky Linux is a community supported distribution, just like CentOS was in the beginning. Interested admins can install Rocky Linux from an ISO image or convert their existing CentOS 8 distributions.


VzLinux has a data center tree that revolves around OpenVZ. OpenVZ began as Virtuozzo, an operating system level server virtualization platform developed by the company of the same name. VzLinux started out as a guest operating system on the Virtuozzo platform, but evolved so that it can now run on almost any virtualization system.

At this point, instead of relying on OpenVZ to run VzLinux, an administrator can deploy this CentOS-like operating system on bare metal or any number of cloud-based hosts. VzLinux offers some unique features such as trial runs for CentOS conversion, snapshot creation and rollback, and unattended bulk conversion.

Virtuozzo has announced plans for the future of VzLinux, including new optimized variations of the distribution for containers or virtual machines.

And like AlmaLinux and Rocky Linux, Virtuozzo claims that VzLinux will stay free and open source forever. Administrators can download and install VzLinux from an ISO image.

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The game streaming service BlueStacks X brings over 200 mobile games to the cloud http://linuxbyexample.org/the-game-streaming-service-bluestacks-x-brings-over-200-mobile-games-to-the-cloud/ http://linuxbyexample.org/the-game-streaming-service-bluestacks-x-brings-over-200-mobile-games-to-the-cloud/#respond Thu, 30 Sep 2021 17:42:20 +0000 http://linuxbyexample.org/the-game-streaming-service-bluestacks-x-brings-over-200-mobile-games-to-the-cloud/

BlueStacks was one of the first applications to make it possible to play Android games on a PC when the software first launched in 2011. But now that Microsoft has native support for Android apps and games for Windows 11, you might be wondering what’s next for Bluestacks.

Cloud gaming, apparently. The company has a new game streaming service called. introduced BlueStacks X this is currently available in beta. At startup, you can stream Android games to Windows, Mac, Android, iOS, Chrome OS, or Linux devices.

Thanks to the BlueStacks X web app, which works with smartphones, tablets, Chromebooks or Windows, Mac and Linux computers, you can stream games on almost any modern device with a web browser. Bluestack explicitly points out that the Raspberry Pi is supported, as well as “some smart TVs” (presumably those with a web browser, since no smart TV apps are mentioned yet).

There’s also a native BlueStacks X client for Windows that lets you play cloud games as well as some games that currently require download: BlueStacks says its cloud gaming service supports 200+ Android games, but so far only about 14 are available to stream on the web app. However, the company plans to add more games every week.

Bluestacks also created a Discord bot called Cloudy that allows users to share links that allow users to connect to multiplayer games, among other things.

Most game streaming services use powerful servers to render games using your local device only as a display and controller. However, BlueStacks X takes a more hybrid approach and uses the technology of the sister company now.gg of Bluestacks. Some of the graphics rendering is outsourced to your local device to reduce the load on the Bluestacks servers.

Among other things, this helps reduce the cost of hosting the service and enables BlueStacks to use a freemium business model. Right now, BlueStacks X is free to use for anyone. But at some point there will be a free and ad-supported version and a premium version, which BlueStacks CEO Rosen Sharma says VentureBeat will launch at a later date.

via press release and BlueStacks blog

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